Family Trees and Family Stories
 McKay/Stevens Genealogy Pages

The Petersen and Christiansen ancestors on this page are all from Denmark or more accurately from the region on the present day German/Danish border region that (at the time of Sönke and Anna's emigration) were culturally and linguistically Danish. Although we know who our ancestors were going back a number of generations, earlier than the mid-1800s we don't have much information beyond the basic facts of their existence.

Click for a gallery of Petersen photos

The Petersen family

A Schleswig-Holstein image

Schleswig -Holstein connection

Take a look at the Petersen family tree. Virtually everyone shown there lived out their lives along the 35 mile line that today separates Denmark and Germany. (Go here to see a longer history of this region). The Petersens considered themselves Danes, but the land they lived in had become part of Germany by the mid-1860s. Their home town of Uphusum is less than 10 miles south of the current Danish border, in the Schleswig region. Through My Heritage, I connected with Petersen relatives who still live in the region that Sönke Petersen and Anna Christiansen left behind. They now speak German and, in spite of their surname, I’m sure they think of themselves as Germans, not Danes.

Petersen family-1932

Petersen family-1932

How We're Related

Doris Petersen married Robert Stevens on March 20, 1942 in Hattiesburg, Mississippi when Bob was going through Army training at Camp Shelby. On May 1 Bob was promoted to staff sergeant and he went on to officer training in Fort Benning, Georgia, Doris returned to East Chicago. Bob would be sent to other US bases in Tennessee and Maryland before being shipped to the Pacific.

She grew up with three first generation immigrant grandparents living nearby: James Roberts, an Irish Protestant, and Sönke and Anna Petersen, who had emigrated from Germany but were linguistic and cultural Danes.

Doris was born in East Chicago and remained there until she went to college at Indiana University where she met Bob. In 1940 she was living at home with her parents and maternal grandmother and working as a stenographer.

After the war the family moved to South Bend, Indiana where they stayed until moving to Bergen County, New Jersey in 1965. Doris' mother, Teresa, lived with Bob and Doris for the last years of her life.


Henry Petersen married Teresa Roberts on June 13, 1918 in East Chicago, Indiana.

A childhood accident that left Henry's foot deformed may have changed his prospects later in life. Because he was unable to do a great deal of physical labor, he directed his energy and was encouraged towards academics. He, like all his siblings and his own two children, went to high school in East Chicago. But he continued his education and graduated with a law degree from the University of Michigan in 1917 and worked as a lawyer in the East Chicago area for the rest of his life. His daughter, Doris, remembers him taking chickens, eggs and garden produce from his clients who were cash strapped during the depression.

Henry Petersen

Judge Petersen

Henry was active in local Republican politics. He was the East Chicago City Attorney and Deputy Prosecutor. His politics were conservative; he was not a fan of Roosevelt's New Deal and believed in low taxes. In 1937, as a member of the Lake County Board of Tax Adjustment, he pushed for cutting the property tax in half.

The Petersen family was always close both in terms of getting together and in physical distance. Most of the family lived within a few block radius on Northcote and Baring Avenues and Henry and Teresa lived a half mile away. Henry and all his brothers were active in the local Masonic Lodge. He was a generous man that put family above all else. He loved Christmases especially having the whole family around the tree overloaded with presents.


A Danish image

Danish connection

Sönke Petersen married Anna Christiansen on June 7, 1882 in Chicago. He came to the US aboard the ship Australia in 1881. The Edward Carr line to which the ship belonged was one of the cheap fare carriers of their day. He had come over earlier from the part Germany that was dominated by Danish speakers to get a job and earn enough money to send for Anna.

Sönke Petersen and Anna Christiansen had 11 children, with two dying in infancy and one in her twenties. Apparently Sönke, as a young man was conscripted into the Prussian army and decided that he didn't want the same for his sons. This was a prime consideration in deciding to sail to America.

A Petersen image

Petersen family

Sönke was a pioneer in the Calumet area of NW Indiana. He settled in Hessville in 1890 where he had a small farm where his sons supplied the labor. He was later employed at the Grasselli, Graver and Inland Steel company.[1]

Braderup (Uphusum)

A Braderup image

Braderup Church

Sönke and Anna were baptized eight months apart in this church in the Lutheran parish of Braderup and it was the center of the lives of many of their family and ancestors. Church records going back to 1638 show baptisms, marriages, and funerals for many in the family. The village church of Braderup is mentioned for the first time in the church register in 1240. The Gothic brick building was probably built around this time with restoration taking place in 1937. The oak altar dates from 1676; the pulpit is at least 100 years older. The baptismal font has been in the Braderup church for over 700 years. All this is to say that the church that the Petersens and the Christiansens knew is much the same as the church that exists today.

The parish was Braderup had a number of smaller villages or settlements in it. It was in Braderup where the church and the civil administration was. Uphusum became only important after it became a stop on the new railway from Niebüll to Süderlügum. Holm, which means a piece of slightly raised land lying in a fen or partly surrounded by streams, was slight elevation in the coastal marshland, which was reasonably secure against flooding until the dikes were built. The water between Uphusum and Holm was a ford and later a bridge. Where the various settlements belonged was determined by the most reasonable and practical foot paths to church.

Keep in mind that the distances are small. A journey from Braderup to Uphusum to Holm by road is less than two miles.


Christian Petersen married Margaretha Petersen on February 2, 1850 in Braderup, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.


Hans Peter Petersen married Cicilia Christiansen in June 1821 in Lügum.


Peter Hansen Petersen Geschwind married Anna Hahn

Continued in column 2...

The Matriarchy

Ellen Elizabeth Mills


Mary Elizabeth Daniels


May Gertrude Francis


Teresa May Roberts


Doris Petersen


(l to r) Ellen Mills, mother of Mary Daniels, mother of May Francis, mother of Teresa Roberts, mother of Doris Petersen


Christiansen Family

The Christiansen family like the Petersens came from the same Danish-German border region and similarly came from the same small farmer tradition.

How We're Related

A Petersen image

Petersen family grocery today

Anna Christiansen married Sönke Petersen in 1882 soon after arriving in the United States. She ran a small grocery store at 150th and Olcott Streets in East Chicago. The family lived in the back of the store. Anna was very religious and was a German Lutheran member before coming to East Chicago. When there was only a Swedish Lutheran church there, she started going to the Congregational church and the rest of the family followed (except for Sönke).

Although the parents spoke Danish, none of their children did but they remember certain Danish words used growing up, especially around cooking. The stewed prunes (svedsker) were a regular at family gatherings. Every Saturday night the whole family would meet at Anna and Sönke's house to play Hearts. The men were very competitive (the loser bought the ice cream) and the games often lasted until 2:00 am.

Anna apparently had a child before she married Sönke. A document shows Marie Sophie Christiansen born to Anna on December 7, 1878 in Uphusum with the notation "Vater nicht angegeben" (father not specified). I do not know what happened to Marie.


Hans Christiansen married Maria Hansen on Aug 7, 1838. He was the youngest of nine children. Hans is called in a document an 'Inste' which means he was a resident.


Lorenz Christiansen married Ingeburg Nielsen in 1796. Lorenz is referred to as a Käthner which means either he would be leasing or owning a "Kate" (or cottage) and could have no land or up to 10 acres of land for farm use, which meant that the cottage had a small barn and some animals; also called a 'Husmann' or smallholder.


Christian Lorenzen married Marina Andredatter on May 5, 1764. Marina's father Andreas is recorded as being a 'Kuhlengraber' or grave digger.


Lorenz Brodersen married Hanna Christiansdatter

Sönke and Anna

My cousin Dick Williams has written a touching remembrance of the Petersens. See Dick Williams' story here.

"When it came time to emigrate, Grandpa (Sönke) and Grandma (Anna) Petersen had agreed to marry but were too poor to afford two of even the cheapest fares to America, so they scraped together just enough for Grandpa to come first, in steerage. Steerage food was mainly half-rotten potatoes, and not many of those. Thus, he recounted, the first English phrase he learned was “No more!”, and the second “Son of a bitch!” Making his way to South Chicago, where a covey of fellow-Danes had preceded him, he worked for several years as a common laborer in the steel mill there, until he'd saved enough money to send for Grandma.

A Petersen image

Anna (Christiansen) Petersen

The day she arrived (the Ems from Bremen landed Anna Christiansen in New York on May 16, 1885), they were married, after which they dined with the pastor and his wife, who then washed the dishes while Grandma wiped. Born in 1856, they were now 29 years old -- Grandpa was fond of remarking in later years that if only they had married young, they could have had a big family. This was a drollery: in the event, they had eleven kids. The first two died in their first summer of what was then a common cause of infant death known as “summer complaint”, presumably transmitted in bad drinking water. Then came nine who grew up.

The streets of South Chicago turned out not to be paved with gold, and the promise of an easier and better life in the promised land pretty much had to wait for the next generation. In the US Steel mill, Grandpa worked twelve hours a day, seven days a week. But only for two or three years once Grandma got there. Even after all that work, on payday he and his buddies still summoned up energy enough to stop in at the neighborhood saloon for beer en route home. You know how guys are. The quantities imbibed reached a level sufficient that Grandma insisted on moving out to Indiana, safely distant from the malign influence of Danish cronies.

A Christiansen image

Where Anna and Sönke were baptized

Those decades may have seen the zenith of the Protestant work ethic. Grandpa’s unending workdays were broken from time to time by economic turndowns -- when something like the Panic of 1893 came along and the demand for steel dropped, the mill just laid off the laborers until things picked up again. Though there was no public welfare system at the time, private charity of some kind was out there. Not, however, for the Petersens -- Grandma said they “would rather die” than accept “relief”. Her life was no more a bed of roses than Grandpa's. Besides raising all those kids, she kept a cow and chickens when they first moved to semi-rural Hessville (now part of Hammond); and when they later moved three or four miles into the mill town of East Chicago, where livestock wasn't allowed, she ran a store on the ground floor while the tribe lived upstairs.

Religious beliefs and ethnic loyalties were intense when my grandparents were young. After Mary Petersen’s birth in 1894, her mother, carrying her baby, walked the six miles from Hessville to East Chicago, then took a streetcar to South Chicago to have the baby baptized. She was so strong in her Lutheran beliefs. Was there no Lutheran church closer than Chicago? Yes, the Swedish Lutheran church which still survives in East Chicago was already there -- 'but that was Swedish'.”

A DNA mystery

Tracing this side of the family farther back in Denmark was given a boost from my DNA testing. Our family shares a common ancestor with a living Danish relative, Liz Thomsen, in Anders Laursen Møller and Sara Hansdatter, who were married on January 8, 1803. They do not show up in my family tree. They lived on a Mølgaard (mill farm) in the village of Vindelev near Vejle, Denmark, around 1800-1815. Sara had a child out of wedlock in 1799 that died soon after. She started working for the miller, Anders Laursen Møller, whom she married in January 1803. We know that Sara’s paternal haplogroup is N1b1, which is associated with Ashkenazi Jews. Liz states that Sara was not a common name among Danish peasant girls. Unfortunately, we haven’t yet been able to trace the exact connection, but it is likely that is through Anna Christiansen, my great grandmother. So the speculation would be that one or more of Anna’s biological ancestors are different from her ancestors of record or we are related through Anna's daughter, Marie Sophie Christiansen.

Stevens/Petersen/Christiansen /Hansen

Hansen Family

The Hansen family goes back five generations in the Süderlügum Parish of Schleswig-Holstein.

How We're Related

Marie Sophie Hansen married Hans Christiansen on July 8, 1838 in Braderup, Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.


Hans Hansen married Helena Andresen in October 1813 in Süderlügum, Germany. Hans Peter was considered a Käthner i.e., he owned a small house and some land.


Andreas Hansen married Anna Sophia Hansdatter


Peter Hansen married Gunder Andreses in 1743


Hans Andersen married Sitzel Petersdatter


All of Scandinavia, that is Demark, Norway, Sweden and Iceland, had used the patronymic naming system for thousands of years. Since German merchants and tradesmen settled in the Danish cities over the last 800 years, they brought many of the German customs with them. German noblemen and officials in Copenhagen and also in Schleswig city were directed by the king and the dukes to manage the countries business. So they introduced with the Reformation many German educated and trained pastors into the Danish State Church system. Thus when parish registers in 1646 were mandated in all parishes in the country, it was natural that the pastors started writing their official records in German. Holstein was settled by German noblemen and it became managed by the border protecting dukes in Schleswig. Over the centuries the German language began to creep up from Germany into the Danish Schleswig. On the West Coast and on the island were the Frisian settlement speaking a Dutch akin type language.

Braderup, Holm, Uphusum, Humptrup, Greelsbüll and Wimmersbüll was the western border of the Danish speaking population.

In about 1782 the bishop under direction of the Duke in Schleswig past a law introducing the mandatory use of fixed family surname and the outlawing of the patronymic system. Anna's grandfather Lorenz Christiansen, born in 1769, used the patronymic of his father, Christian Lorenzen. But Anna's father Hans Christiansen, born in 1816, used the Christiansen surname.

Until about 1850 to 1870 most ordinary people in Denmark used patronymics instead of surnames. Patronymics are constructed from the Christian name of a person’s father, followed by “sen” (= son) or “datter” (= daughter). So, for example, Jens Nielsen’s daughter Maren’s full name would be “Maren Jensdatter”, and his son Søren would be “Søren Jensen”.

Families were given a twenty year grace period to determine which surname they wanted to use. Many just used the surname in use by the head of the family in 1780. Others had the choice of using the wife's surname, adding the name of their profession or occupation, the name of their farm or a totally different surname.

From about 1780 on all children were listed in the parish register at baptism with their new surname. Before that time all parish register would only list the first names and it was automatically assumed that boys got the father's first name +sen (for son or søn in Danish) and girls would get their father's first name +datter.

Many of our ancestors came from Holm and other villages along the old Danish-Frisian language border, they might be Frisian descendants. Frisian came from Holland between 1100 and 1300 had the Dutch style surname system with its patronymic name imbedded between their first and last (sur)name.

Some of our ancestors are German without the patronymic tradition.

Continued in column 3...

Links to the Extended Petersen Family



The Petersen ancestors are all from Denmark or more accurately from the region on the present day German/Danish border region that (at the time of Sönke's emigration) were culturally and linguistically Danish.

The Christiansen family like the Petersens came from the same Danish-German border region and similarly came from the same small farmer tradition.

The Hansen family goes back five generations in the Süderlügum Parish of Schleswig-Holstein.

The Roberts family in the United States started with Francis Roberts who emigrated from County Cork in about 1865.

The Wagner family still has a presence in Dunmanway.

The Atkins family had been merchants in the Dunmanway area.

The Francis family first were New Englanders making their homes in Massachusetts and Connecticut. They later moved West to Ohio.

The Stoddard family were long time Connecticut residents.

The Buck family is closely associated with Wethersfield, Connecticut.

The Butler family can trace their roots back to the first Chief Butler of Ireland. The Butler family put down roots in Connecticut.

James Olmstead was one of the founders of Hartford, Connecticut.

James Loomis was among the first settlers of Windsor, Connecticut.

The Churchill family settled early Wethersfield, Connecticut.

The Griswold family in this branch are distant cousins of other Stevens and McKay Griswold ancestors.

Henry Hayward came first to Cambridge in 1634, then to Hartford, to Wethersfield in 1649, and finally back to Hartford in 1663.

Rev. Samuel Stone was the co-founder (along with Rev. Thomas Hooker) of Hartford, Connecticut.

The Hand family members were early Long Island, New York settlers and connect to the Petersen family twice.

John Stratton was one of the first settlers at East Hampton, Long Island and was a slave owner.

The Chittenden/Chatterton family seems to have first arrived in northern New England, in this case the Piscataqua River area on the border between Maine and New Hampshire, and over the next three generations made their way south into Connecticut and Massachusetts.

The Clark family were early New Haven, Connecticut settlers.


Robert Coe, was in involved in the settlement of a number of communities in Massachusetts, New York and Connecticut. His descendants settled in more permanently in Stratford and Durham, Connecticut.

The Smith family is associated with the founding of Milford, Connecticut.

The Northrup family has connections to Milford, Connecticut.

Nathaniel Briscoe was a founder of Milford, Connecticut.

Jasper Gunn settled first in Roxbury, Massachusetts and later in Milford, Connecticut.

The Norton family was among the early settlers in Connecticut.

The Robinson and Kirby families settled Middletown and Durham, Connecticut.

The Hawley family is closely associated with early Connecticut settlements in Stratford and Wethersfield.

The Birdsey/Birdseye family were settlers in New Haven.

The Mitchell family progenitor, Matthew, was an early success story in New England.

The Daniels family settled early in Massachusetts and Connecticut with nore recent generations of the Daniels family migrating west to Ohio, Michigan, and Tennessee.

This branch of the Daniel's family stayed in the East.

The Partridge family stayed in Massachusetts through the first four generations in New England.

The Ellis family's early history runs through Dedham, Medford and Medfield, Massachusetts.

The Breck family is strongly associated with the founding of Sherborn, Massachusetts.

The Fairbanks family were the first settlers in Sherborn, Massachusetts

Religious issues sent the Graves family from the relatively civilized Hartford to the frontier of Hatfield, Massachusetts.

The Hoar family in America is descended from John Hoar, a man whose good relationships with the local Indians made him unusual among his peers.

The progenitor of the Smith family in New England, Samuel, had a long and interesting life and he has many connections with both sides of our family.

The Chappell family were early settlers in Wethersfield (just south of Hartford) and New London, Connecticut.

The Greenaway family is connected to both sides of the family tree.

It is said that the Larkcom family is of Huguenot descent. They lived in Massachusetts and Connecticut for five generations before going west in 1825.

The Norton family made their home in Massachusetts and Connecticut or six generations before Comfort and her husband moved to Ohio in 1825.

The Bartlett family passed on the profession in the leather trades from the first immigrant, Richard. They spent their lives along the Merrimack River in Newbury and Amesbury, Massachusetts.

The Merrill family is associated with Ipswich, Massachusetts and the founding of Newbury, Massachusetts.

The Webster family is associated with Ipswich, Massachusetts.

The Shatswell family came to Ipswich in 1633 and they later moved to Newbury, Massachusetts.

The Rust and Wardwell families arrived at and remained in Massachusetts through the first three generations.

William Wardwell was a follower of Anne Hutchinson and was banished from Massachusetts but was later reinstated.

The Younglove family originally settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts but over a couple of generations moved to Connecticut.

Robert Kinsman was an early Ipswich, Massachusetts resident.

The Hart family in America started in Ipswich, Massachusetts but soon relocated to Connecticut.

The Beaman family was greatly affected by the early colonial wars.

The Kibbe and Cook families were among the first settlers of Enfield, Connecticut.

Henry Cook was a butcher who arrived in Salem, Massachusetts in 1638.

The Phelps and Randall families settled in the Connecticut River Valley between Westfield and Windsor.

Philip Randall, a blacksmith, came to New England in 1633 and settled first in Dorchester, Massachusetts and in 1636 in Windsor, Connecticut.

The Ingersoll and Bird families have their roots in Hartford, Connecticut.

Thomas Lord was an original 1636 proprietor of Hartford.

The Solart family had their share of troubles with a suicide and a witchcraft accusation in just two generations.

The Keep family suffered through Indian raids in early Massachusetts settlement and later this line produced three generations of Massachusetts iron manufacturers and blacksmiths.

The Lawrence family arrived early in the Great Migration and through four generations made their home in Massachusetts.

The Scripture family was greatly affected by the Indian wars around Groton, Massachusetts.

The Knapp family had a history of controversy in the early colonial days.

Samuel Morse was an important Puritan founder of Dedham, Massachusetts but an important head of family that branched off into many McKay and Stevens ancestors.

The Colton family is closely identified with the Longmeadow, Massachusetts are, its early settlement and conflicts with Native Americans there.

The Griswold family originates from Solihull, England, where they lived for centuries as greyhound breeders.

Henry Wolcott came to New England on the Mary and John in 1630. His descendants include Oliver Wolcott, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

The Leonard family lost four members of their family to Indian raids in 1676 in Longmeadow, Massachusetts.

The Turner family is only known through the association of Edward Turner with the church in Roxbury, Massachusetts.

The Hyland family spent the first four generations in New England in Scituate, Massachusetts.

The Thorne family settled in Scituate, Massachusetts.

The Pinson family also settled in Scituate, Massachusetts.

The first Hoopers in America were weavers who settled near Boston. Later generations were associated with Scituate, Massachusetts.

Boston settler Thomas Marshall was a follower of Anne Hutchinson who later founded Windsor, Connecticut.

William James was a shipbuilder and Quaker.

The Richards family became well-to-do early residents in Dorchester and Hartford.

The Stockbridge family were early settlers in Scituate, Massachusetts.

The first immigrant in this branch came to America from Holland and later descendants change their name to Mills from Van der Muelen.

There is some uncertainty about the Dewey family ancestry but there is a strong likelihood that the link goes back to immigrant Thomas Dewey.

The Lyman family members were among the earliest settlers of Hartford, Connecticut.

Thomas Ford was a founder of Dorchester, Massachusetts in 1630.

The Terry family is another line with uncertain links.

The Webster family includes one of the first governors of Connecticut.

The Alexander family is from Scotland.

The Bliss and Leonard families are closely associated with Springfield, Massachusetts.

The Porter family is associated with Windsor and Hartford Connecticut.

The Stanley family settled in Hartford but went to Hadley, Massachusetts due to religious differences.

The American progenitor, Lamrock Flowers, was a lawyer who settled in Hartford, Connecticut.

The Smith family traces its roots back to Stratford-on-Avon, England.

Rev. Ephraim Huit matriculated at St. John's College, Cambridge in 1611, and became a preacher at Knowll, Warwickshire. He was "silenced by Archbishop Laud" in 1638. After Ephraim was "silenced," meaning he no longer had a livelihood, he came to America in 1639. He went directly to Windsor, Connecticut, to join Rev. John Warham in leading the church there.

The Buell and Griswold families are tied to stories of mishps at sea, dissenting religious beliefs, and witchcraft.

Edward Griswold was the brother of another Francis ancestor Matthew Griswold. Edward came to New England with Rev. Ephriam Huit from England; he was in Windsor by 1639.

The Mason family will be forever tied to the reputation of Major John Mason, a hero in his time, now viewed in a different light.

The Stanton family began in North America with Thomas who was a well-known Indian language interpreter and trader in Connecticut. Later generations settled in Rhode Island.

The Gallup family's first two generations are known for John senior and junior, the former a noted mariner and the latter a soldier who died in King Phillip's War.

The Prentice family settled in Boston and later in New London, Connecticut.

The Nichols family were in Watertown, Massachusetts by 1634. They went to Wethersfield, Connecticut, and finally to Stratford, Connecticut in 1639.

The Mead family arrived in Gloucester, Massachusetts in 1635 and settled in Roxbury.

The Lord family has two paths of Petersen ancestry.

The Sanford family along with their relatives, the Coddingtons and Hutchinsons, include some of the most historically significant ancestors in our family tree.

William Coddington left Boston, Massachusetts because he was a supporter of Anne Hutchinson and settled in Rhode Island.

Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson has been called "the most famous—or infamous—English woman in colonial American history" due to her outspoken dissent from the Puritan Church in Massachusetts.

The Eggleston family was very prolific leaving many descendants.

William Kelsey was one of the original followers of the Rev. Thomas Hooker and they were the first settlers of Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1632. In 1636 he became one of the founders of Hartford, Connecticut when Rev. Hooker's congregation relocated there.

The Robinson family includes the Revolutionary War veteran, Amos Robinson.

The Hyde family were founding settlers of Norwich, Connecticut.

The Gray family in America starts with the rags-to-riches story of Edward Gray and includes his connection to Mayflower travelers, the Chiltons.

The Church family settled in Massachusetts and later relocated to Rhode Island.

The Warren family includes the Mayflower passenger, Richard Warren.

The Calkins family is associated with the founding of New London, Connecticut.

The Lake and Goodyear families were among the original settlers of New Haven Colony with later generations moving to Topsfield, Massachusetts.

The Goodyear family members are ancestors to multiple Petersen and McKay lines.

The Cummings family had many unfortunate encounters with Native Americans during the early colonial period.

The Kinsley/Kingsley and Brackett families are associated with the Massachusetts towns of Braintree and Dunstable.

The Brackett family was among the earliest Boston settlers.

The Howlett family settled in the Ipswich/Topsfield, Massachusetts area.

Later French descendants settled in New Jersey.

Color Codes

Generations removed from Petersen ancestor


2nd Generation

3rd Generation

4th Generation

5th Generation

6th Generation

7th Generation

8th Generation

9th Generation

10th Generation

11th Generation

General History


Relations with Native Americans







The Pequot War

King Philip's War


Schleswig-Holstein immigration

Scots-Irish immigration

Dutch immigration

The Headright System

German Immigration

Great Migration

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Plymouth Colony


General Layout


[1] Working conditions were probably quite unhealthy at all three companies. Even today lawyers representing mesothelioma victims (contracted from exposure to asbestos) list Grasselli Chemical Division, Graver Tank & Manufacturing Company, and Inland Steel Company as job sites where asbestos exposure is possible.


Thanks to Hans Rerup, Heini Petersen, and Thomas Kleinert for their help in tracking down Danish/German ancestors and to Dick Williams for his remembrances.

Return to top of page